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Real World Charging Data for the Bolt, Kona, Niro, Soul, and Leaf


Jason-ABRP

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Thanks to all who have contributed data to help improve the planner! Without you, we wouldn't be able to plan routes with such accuracy.  We've finally achieved enough data (and I finally had time to sit down and analyze it!) to produce updated real-world charging models for many of the EVs you've been providing live data.

Before we start, it's important to understand that the baseline curve is a best-case curve which planner limits based on real conditions (like the charger's maximum current output).  In the future we'll be implementing other limitations, such as battery temperature.

First up is the Chevrolet Bolt (pre-2020):

chevy_bolt_17_60_other.png.7b371310defb69292eee53f4c00dff0f.png

Some really interesting features of this data! To start with, our charge curve for the Bolt has been highly optimistic for some time.  This matches up with my experience when charging.  The next thing I note is the many "warmup" ramps under 50% SoC, these are likely preset cold-battery curves, and I will be revisiting these in the coming months as we work on our cold weather models.  At the moment, our charging model is relatively naive, assuming a single curve for all conditions.  It also seems like the step-downs also vary depending on condition, but generally are within the same several percent of each other.

Next we've got the Hyundai Ioniq (28kWh):

hyundai_ioniq_17_28_other.png.b9da5993f613892051d9793fdfe2fb7d.png

In this case, our original estimate was a little pessimistic.  Tapering too early and too harshly.  The actual performance is quite impressive.  Maintaining full charge over 60kW all the way to nearly 80%!  The middle "shelf" in the curve corresponds to the max power on a 50kW charger, limited only by the battery voltage and the charger output current.  The final feature that's quite apparent is the 94% DCFC cutoff (The line is extended to 100% along the L2 power level).

Next for an interesting chart is the Hyundai Kona / Kia Niro / Kia Soul (64kWh):

hyundai_kona_19_64_other.png.f73d5f3ae639efe6c6dd3c4dc1a9af81.png

All three vehicles share a powertrain, though we only had enough data from the Kona to produce a charge curve.  We'll be applying this charge curve to all three models.  The chart has some interesting characteristics.  First, there's a lot of "shelves" in the chart, where either the car is throttling itself by requesting a lower amperage.  This is likely due to colder batteries, but interesting that there seem to be preset levels that don't change as charging warms the car. 

Finally, and longest coming, we've finally got enough of the right kind of data from the Nissan Leaf to produce full driving and charging models!  This post will only focus on the charging models, I may post an analysis of the Leaf driving when I have some more time in the future, but those models have all been updated.

Nissan Leaf (24kWh):

nissan_leaf_12_24_other.png.2e0768a5b732ee26300650d22e2793c2.png

Some interesting features here, there seems to be a lot of variability in the charge rates on the Leaf, different taper points, and taper rates.  This suggests some realtime optimization by the battery management, and likely some compensation for degradation on the battery.  As I have time to dig into building out more detailed charging models this will be an interesting avenue of analysis!

Nissan Leaf (30kWh)

nissan_leaf_16_30_other.png.f6821c99c9ac3b0705a8177fda72ed08.png

Our original estimates were pretty close to the bounding max power curve, though as those who own a Leaf can probably attest, it seems that often it follows a more limited power curve.  Again, likely managed by the BMS and limited by conditions.

Nissan Leaf (40kWh):

nissan_leaf_18_40_other.png.9b4978286e17bd28a826cf08dc4102a4.png

The 40kWh leaf definitely presents a more consistent charging experience than previous models, with a few lower-power "shelves" likely just due to lower-current chargers.

At the moment we only have Leaf e+ 50kW charging data, since very few are in the wild and even fewer >50kW Chademo stations are available yet.  Once that data is available we'll make a separate post for that (and other cars which are ready for updates.

Hope you've found this data interesting, and more importantly - use it to plan some exciting trips!

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11 Comments


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Note that the Kona/Niro/Soul cold weather charge rates probably get considerably depending on whether the car has the cold weather package.

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For LEAF - there is some dependecy on Changing power with the Temp.
Is there any adjustment for the Templ that ABRP is receiving from Real Time data ?

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On 11/19/2019 at 9:29 PM, Guest Taylor said:

Note that the Kona/Niro/Soul cold weather charge rates probably get considerably depending on whether the car has the cold weather package.

Very true, we will have to differentiate those when I get around to figuring out that analysis.

On 12/2/2019 at 10:26 AM, kdebarb63 said:

For LEAF - there is some dependecy on Changing power with the Temp.
Is there any adjustment for the Templ that ABRP is receiving from Real Time data ?

Not at the moment, the only impact is on the driving estimate (additional power draw from the heater, etc).

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Guest ElGeorge

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Very nice data. Short question, how is the green curve calculated (determined)? Is there a function that you fit?

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Hi guys, I'm a leaf (62 kw) owner in Europe and there are a lot of 70 kw chademo chargers here in Holland. If I can help you guys with any Investigations I'd be happy to help 

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Excellent post! Have you factored in charging curves vs outside temperatures? I.E. my Kia Niro EV will reach it's peak of 77kw sooner in late spring vs late winter. In the winter the battery heater starts when DC Rapid charging starts.

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On 12/5/2019 at 2:23 AM, Jason (ABRP) said:

Very true, we will have to differentiate those when I get around to figuring out that analysis.

Not at the moment, the only impact is on the driving estimate (additional power draw from the heater, etc).

Hi Jason - has there been any progress with adjusting the charging curve for the Kona/eNiro/Soul based on temperatures?

I was thinking that even without live battery temperature data, it could be possible to adjust the curve based on an estimation of the most likely charging 'shelf' given the outside temperature, distance driven, and whether there have been any previous charging sessions during the journey.

This YouTube channel is really insightful and from the data provided I would have thought it should be possible to come up with a set of adjustments to the curve which are applied in certain circumstances. It wouldn’t be perfect, but it’d be better than ABRP just assuming every session will be as if it took place in ideal conditions. 

https://youtube.com/channel/UCs_6MkyJekI432ahxEm2oAg

Edited by Bill N
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@Bill N - Yes, but nothing you can use yet unfortunately.  I've been working on overhauling our modelling tools to allow us to easily model the temperature dependencies of driving and charging.  It's coming, certainly! We just want to make sure we have it right.

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On 12/5/2019 at 2:23 AM, Jason (ABRP) said:

Very true, we will have to differentiate those when I get around to figuring out that analysis.

Not at the moment, the only impact is on the driving estimate (additional power draw from the heater, etc).

Thanks Jason - sounds good! Keep up the great work!

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Thank you Jason for the Kona charging curve. It motivated me to contribute data from my Kia E-Niro 64 kWh.

I hope this data can clarify which of the shelves in your original curve were caused by amperage limitations due to low battery temperatures or low-power DC chargers. All of the following data were measured on HPCs with at least 100kW available charging power, so the car was never limited by the DC charger.

Here's what I measured with Torque Pro:

1858886430_KiaE-NiroMY2021DCChargingPowerAndreas33.thumb.png.44055407c8544647a93f577508158868.png

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

418224559_KiaE-NiroMY2021DCChargingCurrentAndreas33.thumb.png.6769a98efeb64d267b45e76a1c463b19.png

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

And here's my data overlayed on your original Kona 64 kWh charging curve. @Jason (ABRP), let me know if you would like it to be a different licence than CC BY-SA 4.0:

2144053599_KiaE-NiroMY2021DCChargingPowerAndreas33(overlayonABRPchargingcurve).thumb.png.2f750f619a1478e5297e28254840c72a.png

Edited by Andreas33
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